How to prevent diseases,
Disease prevention means not only preventing the development of a disease but also limiting the progression of disease at any staged. For controlling the disease first identify the links in the chain of transmission, magnitude, distribution in time, place, person, causation and sources of infection and then activities should be taken on primary prevention or secondary prevention or both of them.
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- In a narrow sense, prevention means averting the development of a pathological state.
- In broader sense, it includes all steps including definite therapy that stops the occurrence or progress of disease at any stage of its course.
There are various levels of prevention. These are given the bellow-
- Primordial Prevention.
- Primary Prevention.
- Secondary prevention.
- Tertiary prevention.
- Quaternary prevention.
It is the prevention of the emergence or development of risk factors in countries or population groups in which they have not yet appeared.For example, many adult health problems (e.g., obesity, hypertension) have their early origins in childhood, because this is the time when lifestyles are formed (for example, smoking, eating patterns, physical exercise).
Primary prevention is defined as “action taken prior to the onset of disease, which removes the possibility that disease will never occur”.There are two modes of prevention in the primary level of prevention. This are-
- Health promotion
- Specific protection. E.g. immunization
Health promotion: The process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve health. For this there are certain measures such as-
- Good housing facilities including basic sanitation.
- Personal hygiene and adoption of healthful living.
Example: Stop smoking or choose not to start
- Secondary prevention:
Secondary prevention is defined as “action which half’s the progress of a disease at its incipient stage and prevents complications”.
The specific interventions are-
- Early diagnosis e.g. cervical cancer screening, vision screening, periodical BP checking etc.
- Adequate treatment.
Tertiary prevention is defined as “all measures available to reduce or limit impairments and disabilities, minimize sufferings caused by existing departures from good health and to promote the patients adjustment to irremediable conditions”. There are two modes of interventions-
Figure: Example of tertiary prevention
- Disability limitation e.g. diabetic education
- Rehabilitation e.g. cardiac rehabilitation.
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Quaternary prevention: It is a level of prevention which is recently introduced.
- Control of Disease
- term controlling: Reduction of the magnitude of the problem to a tolerable condition this is known as controlling of a disease.
- Aims of controlling: The term disease control describes operations aimed at reducing-
- The incidence of disease.
- The duration of disease and consequently the risk of transmission.
- The effects of infection including both the physical and psychological complications and
- The financial burden to the community.